Research Question 3: Key Trends Accelerating Australian Tertiary Education Technology Adoption

What trends do you expect to have a significant impact on the ways in which Australian tertiary education institutions approach our core missions of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry?

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NOTE: The Key Trends are sorted into three categories: short-term impact, mid-term impact, and long-term impact.

Short-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that are driving edtech adoption now, but will likely remain important for only next one to two years. Virtual Worlds was an example of a fast trend that swept up attention in 2007-8.

Mid-Term Impact Trends
These trends will be important in decision-making for a longer term, and will likely continue to be a factor in decision-making for the next three to five years.

Long-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that will continue to have impact on our decisions for a very long time. Many of them have been important for years, and continue to be so. These are the trends -- like mobile or social media -- that continue to develop in capability year over year.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

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Compose your entries like this:

Trend Name
Add your ideas here with a few complete sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!

Advancing Cultures of Innovation
Many thought leaders have long believed that schools can play a major role in the growth of national economies. In order to breed innovation and adapt to economic needs, schools must be structured in ways that allow for flexibility, and spur creativity and entrepreneurial thinking. There is a growing consensus among many thought leaders that school leadership and curricula could benefit from agile startup models. Educators are working to develop new approaches and programs based on these models that stimulate top-down change and can be implemented across a broad range of institutional settings. In the business realm, the Lean Startup movement uses technology as a catalyst for promoting a culture of innovation in a more widespread, cost-effective manner, and provides compelling models for school leaders to consider. This is beginning to advance quite dramatically. The Innovation Unit has recently opened business in Australia and educators are increasingly seeking training in design thinking: in order to learn how to lead innovation at school and system level. - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 There is an interesting interplay between research, policy and practice here, and between quality and scale. For example, while research might inform policy and practice, there's a desirable disruption which can be promoted by innovative practice which is then researched and can inform policy changes.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 7, 2016- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 spot on - s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 agree this is important - building cultures of innovation within universities is going to be critical.- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 can't really 'change culture' - (line up here...hold your bowl up high and I'll spoon your new culture in)- university's so trip over this! - sahoward sahoward Feb 18, 2016 Indeed as the social landscape changes in response to new technologies, new ways of working, new social expectations, the needs of education will change. The question is how these new skills, knowledge and future 'canons' are developed and which ones are developed. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 Students as partners may accelerate a culture of innovation in schools. This trend is really just developing in Australia, eg Kelly Matthews OLT Fellowship Makerspaces will become an important factor in advancing cultures of innovation: spaces where students, faculty and other staff come together for collaboration and creation, sharing skills, knowledge resources: USQ makerspace - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 Is there a space for quasi-markets (or complete markets) in schools? Experience in setting up such initiatives says there is potential, but the infrastructure can be prohibitive. Nonetheless, it has the potential to provide opportunities for innovation and experimentation (more long term). The benefits are engagement with real end-users or clients and use of high-end technologies to achieve objectives. - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016 Creating a culture of innovation, building teaching staff's familairisation and confidence with technology - key to progressing online learning- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016- yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 21, 2016 - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016To create a culture of innovation we need to start valuing failure and stop believing that central control systems can completely define reality and pre-determine all outcomes - this is a hard lesson for governments and universities alike, particularly while much of our 'innovation' is free of the harsh selective pressures that face entrepreneurs and businesses. - brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 21, 2016Stephen I completely agree. We do not teach how to fail - how many courses actually teach how to manage successful failures? Talk to any famous or successful business people and ask them how many times they have failed.

I have been involved with online learning in the VET sector since 2000 and have seen innovation ebb and flow. The high point was the federally funded and driven Australian Flexible Learning Framework which emphasised innovation, collaboration, sharing and embedding new practice. While innovation centrally driven can only go so far, the policy was very successful at building capability on the ground while at the same time promoting structural change through it’s leadership program. It ended in 2012 and has not been replaced by anything comparable. VET is undergoing a crisis driven by a shift from a predominately publicly funded and administered model to a demand driven contestable funding environment. In this environment innovation has shifted to the sidelines as the focus has been on regulation, compliance and economic rationalisation of service provision. Teachers are so pressed for time with the added burden of compliance combined with reduced staffing levels they have little time to experiment with new teaching practice and technology innovation. It’s is very hard to promote tolerance of failure where everyone fears the outcome of an unfavourable audit. - stephan.ridgway stephan.ridgway Feb 22, 2016

Growing Focus on Measuring Learning
The growing focus on measuring learning describes a renewed interest in assessment and the wide variety of methods and tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students. As societal and economic factors redefine what skills are necessary in today’s workforce, educational institutions must rethink how to define, measure, and demonstrate mastery of subjects, skills, and competencies. The proliferation of data mining software and developments within online learning, mobile learning, and learning management systems are coalescing toward learning environments that leverage analytics and visualization software to portray learning data in a multidimensional and portable manner. In online and blended courses, data can reveal how student actions contribute to progress and learning gains. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 I think that we are just at the beginning of a 'revolution' in the use of technology to better measure learning and performance. Allied to the technological affordances though, I think that we are also making inroads into our understanding as to what are the key factors that describe a successful education performance. I'd say that there is a groundswell against reliance on simple quantitative measures. Project Zero's focus on scaling Reggio approaches in high schools is becoming popular: - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 - s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 Another important topic - sahoward sahoward Feb 18, 2016 I can't help but think, 'measuring for what?' The inclusion of data that can reveal information about students' actions is important for understanding how learning is occurring, e.g. what choices, paths, changes, etc. students make in their learning -- leading to what result. However, I think the real key to how we measure learning, and future development and integration of these tools, may/should focus on a feedback loop. How can the metrics/results be used formatively, which ones are best used formatively, etc. The 'revolution' could be in the continuous assessment cycle.- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016
- j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 even in the list of provided examples, very few relate to learning. We tend to measure what is available and then use it to justify various agenda's. Very little value is placed on whether learning of course concepts occurs because this is hard to measure accurately and systematically, with far too much variability introduced by academics, too often instead, value is placed on student evaluations of how they enjoyed a course, website access rates, lecture capture views, etc., none of which relate to any measure of student learning. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 Is some learning worth measuring? Assessment analytics is an area that needs much more attention as we move towards expecting more from graduates and universities. There is a long history of methods for measuring the characteristics of the responses from students but less on whether the original task was worth doing? - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 yes I think what will be really interesting will be what we measure. At the moment it can be complex and too tricky to measure things like creativity or tendency to innovate. What about resilience? This push to measure everything everywhere (look at our slavish devotion to research metrics) will also spread to measuring every aspect of learning. The most we can hope is that just as altmetrics arose as an alternative metrics to research, alternative measures of student learning or aspects of student learning will emerge that accommodate the different skillsets and characteristics of our students - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016
- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016A key challenge in this space is managing this information at the level of the student and taking into account their context when using it. Far too often this data is aggregated to the point of meaninglessness. The focus on measuring learning at the level of courses and programmes is turning us into factory workers, not educators. - V.Alvarez V.Alvarez Feb 22, 2016 There is a dissociation between beneficiaries of LA, students-teachers, academic institutions and governments/decision-makers. I agree with the focus on closing the feedback-loop. I'd add the importance of personalisation or tailoring feedback to personal objectives.

Increasing Cross-Institution Collaboration
Collective action among schools and districts is growing in importance for the future of tertiary education. More and more, institutions are joining consortia — associations of two or more organizations — to combine resources or to align themselves strategically with innovation in K-12 education. Today’s global environment is allowing universities to unite across international borders and work toward common goals concerning technology, research, or shared values. Support behind technology-enabled learning in classrooms has reinforced the trend toward open communities and university consortia, as educators and administrators recognize collective action as a sustainable method of supporting upgrades in technological infrastructure and IT services. This is also the case at school level, now seeking more PD from overseas providers. - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 17, 2016 - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016 While I think this topic would be more accurately represented by the word "cooperation" rather than collaboration, increasingly I think we'll see the co-dependencies being assumed rather than negotiated and will extend beyond the realm of .edu. Corporate involvement, SMEs, innovation hubs, student entrepreneurship, co-working collaboratives, etc are all part of the mix of partnerships and cooperatives that form the contemporary landscape of education. The social structures that enable innovation are being activated in all sectors and all industries with an awareness of a 360 degree model - ground-up, top-down, middle-out, outside-in - to ensure that all opportunities for innovation are recognized. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 It is not just cooperation/collaboration between traditional institutions but also partnerships between universities and third party providers who are moving into the curriculum design and delivery space that is increasing. We are all experiencing the pressure to partner with entities that are more agile and nimble and more responsive to market forces than universities - sherman.young sherman.young Feb 19, 2016And maybe even build bespoke educational solutions *for* partners - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 and the need to move to 'deck chairs and titanic' to very new ways of working interplayed with physical and digital structures - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 21, 2016
These collaborations/cooperations could result in specialisation in individual institutions. One university has an awesome Bachelor of Aviation, another something else, and another yet something else. The cost of infrastructure will drive the emergence of these kinds of models. It's already happening in a small way with various universities being known for a particular specialisation. Consortia will ensure that every specialisation is covered by at least one member in the group. With this will will also see the rise of full cross-institutional credit and recognition of prior learning ( - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 sounds good - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016 I'd be interested to see if Universities will adopt a "module' approach, where to achieve a specific degree you may need to access a number of Universities to complete all the modules - this may improve the use of skills in specific institutions and minimise courses being taught poorly because of a lack of resources (fits with the collaboration model but on a different level) Is the current university model in Australia sustainable? Do we have too many providers and wasteful duplication (without doubt, in Teacher Education)? Some of the discussion here about partnerships, cooperation, collaboration, 3rd party providers, innovation, bespoke solutions gets me thinking about technology and "disruption" and where (and when) the real disruption will occur in Universities. The technology has provided many false starts and expensive disappointments, conservative/cautious leadership stifling change/innovation but maybe the time (and technology) is right for a serious disruption to the current model. - geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 21, 2016
Allowing greater flexibility of combinations of 'modules" from different providers sounds great in theory but there is a real risk that the outcome is a standardised and homogenised least-common-denominator system driven by economic outcomes, I think we need to first learn how to engage with learners as individuals systemically (including right through to Government) and to value a range of non-economic social and cultural outcomes.- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016
Partnership Approach to Adoption of Educational Technology With increasing pressure to deliver efficient and effective outcomes rapidly and at scale, traditional silos within Universities need to be broken down to work together for the best outcomes in terms of adoption of new education technologies. These include IT, central education and Library functions. At UWA the Centre for Education Futures and the Library have partnered together to best support curriculum renewal through the carpe diem redesign process led by the PVC Education Innovation, Professor Gilly Salmon. In the workshops learning designers and librarians work together to support academic staff for the best education outcomes. Bringing the skills together is a key component of the approach. More information - Jill.benn Jill.benn Feb 3, 2016

Increasing Use of Blended Learning Designs
Over the past several years, perceptions of online learning have been shifting in its favor as more learners and educators see it as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning. Drawing from best practices in online and face-to-face methods, blended learning is on the rise at universities and colleges. The affordances of blended learning offers are now well understood, and its flexibility, ease of access, and the integration of sophisticated multimedia and technologies are high among the list of appeals. Recent developments of business models for institutions are upping the ante of innovation in these digital environments, which are now widely considered to be ripe for new ideas, services, and products. While growing steadily, the recent focus in many education circles on the rapid rise and burnout of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has led to the view that these sorts of offerings may be fad-like. However, progress in learning analytics; adaptive learning; and a combination of cutting-edge asynchronous and synchronous tools will continue to advance the state of online learning and keep it compelling, though many of these methods are still the subjects of experiments and research by online learning providers and institutions. The active use of LMS is no longer something teachers can avoid. Students and communities expect it. - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 - s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 agree. Does it have to be an LMS as such or can we consider more flexible, less formalised access through cloud type systems that can be adapted more easily than most LMS - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 17, 2016 - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 Current LMS models are transforming and with increasingly ubiquitous APIs I think its conceivable that LMS as platform is on the decline and LMS as simply a staging area for the scope of individual preferences is ascending. Similarly, the notion of blended learning is likely to be reframed away from the dichotomous online/offline concepts towards learning that includes contexts and activities that are not initiated by formal educational settings. I suspect "blended learning" is already an irrelevant anachronism. Perhaps a flexible approach to learning is what we are really working towards...not constrained by time or content, but rather enabling a range of ways for students to access information that can be adjusted as required. - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 17, 2016 - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016 This might be achieved by integrating experiences into a students social experience. Using Facebook (or other social medias) might be a doorway into creating more backchannel communication and ongoing learning, whilst maintaining a separation of "friends" and "teachers" - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016;jsessionid=B371B743118D81592B6F8D9EA82835EE.f02t03?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage= I would also say that the traditional LMS is waning and the new iteration of LMSs, which have solid APIs to external social sites will see the move away from teachers/lecturers/trainers being the focus and a more personalised learning approach where students have flexibility in subjects that interest to them and will shape their own learning journey. This will be challenging to courses in VET which have specific curriculum that must be taught to achieve competence and will require a shift in the mindset of teaching staff, but achievable. Utilizing conditional release of information/content based upon different parameters can mean that each student will have a different learning journey through the course via a variety of blended technologies and teaching techniques that academic staff choose to use to augment the learning. Staff at the South West Institute of Technology Laboratory Operations and Health division utilize blended delivery using Moodle, Face-to-face and Linkedin to support their students through their Certificate III in Pathology - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 18, 2016 Until there is a perspective on how to manage quality feedback and assessment through the LMS, they will only be a repository for content. The issue with this is the lack of quality content and reduced focus on student outcomes. - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016
- j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Blended is sometimes seen as a requirement to offer courses to online and off-campus students in the same course, using the same approaches and technologies. This does encourage the best use of both environments, but also introduces the worst elements of both environments. Online courses should be optimised for online students, not crippled by attempting to cater for on-campus students as well, similarly on campus courses should not have to include online activities that would be better conducted on campus. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 True blended learning should be seen as separate from online and on-campus offerings, with specific learning environments and pedagogies that support the integrated on and off-campus learning options of students. Such environments can use telepresence, VR, virtual worlds, and remote laboratories to enable on and off campus students to work together on learning activities, synchronously and asynchronously. This is however, different to on campus or purely online learning. The Griffith University Learning Laboratory (GULL) project aims to explore true blended learning environments. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 If academics think using the LMS is bringing them into the modern learning environment then they have already missed the point of learning environments that now seamlessly integrate the physical and virtual and make the whole world the new "classroom".- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016 - sherman.young sherman.young Feb 19, 2016 Isn't everything blended. All of our students have devices - whether they are on campus, or off campus. We need to work towards a more naturally-blended use of the digital technologies. Everybody pulls out Facebook on their smartphones whilst waiting to pay at the supermarket. How can we learn from that? I think perhaps this trend would better be termed 'More effective use of blended learning environments'. Every university has a LMS that they compel their academics to use. An online presence is no longer enough. Blended learning that is adaptive, flexible, interactive, collaborative, creative is where universities are looking. Utilising the social media or the characteristics of social media that students (and staff) are already using extensively.- helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 yes Education 3.0- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016 My approach is to say that blended learning emphasises the importance of getting the most value out of face to face learning opportunities. By definition, blended means that a range of tools and modes are used in a way that is responsive to the student population and their needs. This is distinct from the choice to use flexible learning which implies that the student can exercise some autonomy over the learning design. By implication then, a choice to use a blend should lead to a deep consideration of how to help students learn well when together - emphasising engagement and motivation, exposing and exploring misconceptions and/or diverse ways of thinking - and then using that to structure and support other activities undertaken using other modes, including online, but also self-directed study and other experiences. Its really got very little to do with LMSs or tools at its heart.- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016 - brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 22, 2016Presently many of the university systems and technology frameworks either support blended or F2F but do not do well to combine these options to give users a seamless experience. New models still need to be designed and implemented that will support a fit for purpose model that could potentially give end users options with a personalized experience.

Increasing Use of Collaborative Learning Approaches
Collaborative learning, which refers to students or teachers working together in peer-to-peer or group activities, is based on the perspective that learning is a social construct. The approach involves activities that are generally focused around four principles: placing the learner at the center, emphasizing interaction and doing, working in groups, and developing solutions to real-world problems. Collaborative learning models are proving successful in improving student engagement and achievement, especially for disadvantaged students. Educators also benefit through peer groups as they engage in professional development and interdisciplinary teaching opportunities. An added dimension to this trend is an increasing focus on online global collaboration where contemporary digital tools are used to engage with others around the world to support curricular objectives and intercultural understanding. This is certainly the case with projects like Flat Connections: and Out of Eden Learn: - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016
- s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 I agree. We are refitting more and more of our formal and informal learning spaces at QUT to enable collaborative learning (in response to increasing demand from staff and students). - sahoward sahoward Feb 18, 2016 I think, in this current form, this trend is very close to cross-institutional collaboration. Could these actually be part of a Collaboration trend in higher education, within and outside of, the teacher-student interaction? Alternately, the increased value of collaboration as a skill that can be taught and is able to afford other learning opportunities? This one is a no brainer. As employers are seeking graduates who know how to work in a team, collaborate effectively even when geographically separated from other team members, universities are striving to prepare them for life in an increasingly competitive and volatile workplace - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016

Increasing Value of the User Experience
User experience (UX) refers to the quality of a person’s interactions with a company’s services and products. The term is commonly applied to assess computer-based exchanges with mobile devices, operating systems, and websites. Superior user experience has been largely attributed to the success of companies. Easy navigation, digestible content, and practical features — among other components — are encompassed in effective website and database designs. The interface itself, however, is just one dimension of UX. Companies such as Amazon and Google are identifying patterns in users’ online behaviors to better tailor search results at the individual level, and direct feedback from users in the form of ratings on websites including NetFlix and TripAdvisor help companies customize content and adjust user interface design. The result is a more efficient and personal experience for users. For institutions, which serve up countless online environments and e-publications, user experience is a relatively new area. In the post-Information Age, there has been so much focus on data management that only recently have education professionals shifted their attention to designing a high-quality experience with the aim of helping researchers and students navigate massive amounts of data. - s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 critical. Currently seems to be focused on support services within universities but a more joined up approach that considers user experience across all engagements with a university is key. - sahoward sahoward Feb 18, 2016 In the higher education space, this takes on another dimension, possibly the 'learning experience'. Usability and interaction design as they relate to, afford and/or limit learning. This starts to relate to how we measure learning and how that data feeds back to the user or how it is pushed to the user. - sherman.young sherman.young Feb 19, 2016 yes, critical. Students see the university as a single experience and don't differentiate between the various systems we make them use. Start with the user (the student) and go from there.
Students see themselves as clients of the university. If they have a bad virtual experience, they do what other clients do, they complain and if they don't get satisfaction, they go somewhere else. In the past, the design of a university's online presence has been at the whim of the ICT department. That is changing with universities putting students at the centre of their virtual presence, such that there is seamless integration between systems, single log ons and so on.- helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 difficult to move fast though isn't it Helen - unlike say, changing your coffee shop
- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016I'm pretty sure this is really good learning design implemented professionally...

Proliferation of Open Educational Resources
Defined by the Hewlett Foundation in 2002, open educational resources (OER) are “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.” Momentum behind OER began early on, getting a major boost when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded the MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative in 2001, making MIT instruction materials for over 2,200 of its courses available online, free of charge. Soon after, prestigious universities including Carnegie Mellon University and Harvard University, among others, pushed forward their own open learning initiatives. Understanding that the term “open” is a multifaceted concept is essential to following this trend in tertiary education; often mistaken to simply mean “free of charge,” advocates of openness have worked towards a common vision that defines it more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but also in terms of ownership and usage rights. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 OER has been around for a comparatively long time and whilst the 'value proposition' is clear, it seems that the take up has been comparatively small. It is possible that OER might be on the verge of becoming more mainstream in that OER materials and content will be more often integrated into existing curricula...I'm interested to see what happens.
- k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 There is a current interest amongst new generation publishers to provide packages, or portals to OER. While the irony of a commercialisation of the supply chain of OER isn't lost on most of us, the reality is that we're being sold a view that Google (or Bing, or Duck Duck Go) isn't enough. Kevin has touched on this in the line above, the uptake of OER has been relatively low despite the concept, and the resources being available for quite some time. The "proliferation" will come from new business models (commercial or otherwise) that streamline access to OER. There seems to be a layer of cognitive load that afflicts many people considering OER, exacerbated by the sheer volume of what's available. When we can find authoring systems that extend the Zemanta-style relevance matching to provide a platform for teachers and learners to simply start working on their own content and using recommendation engines to connect them with what's most relevant then we will have removed one of the main inhibitors of the uptake of OER. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 Another consideration here might also be the reframing of OER to a crowdsourcing model. The origins of OER are, from my experience, the mentor teacher handing the student teacher a collection of resources. In the connected world the handovers seem to become more anonymous and more demand driven. How far away from analytics that can mine the vast collections of OER and not simply make recommendations but reconstruct the available material into a unique personalised (or contextualised) form on demand? The emphasis on one-to-many of current OER frameworks could be inverted so that the many-to-one could be a realistic outcome. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Another aspect of OER is the ownership of student created works and contributions e.g. to shared discussions, if students are not forced/encouraged to make these OER, their use and reuse in shared and collaborative learning environments may contravene their intellectual property and other rights.- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016 We've been talking about OERs for a long time now but we're beginning to see institutions adopt specific policies around the use of and the production of OERs. There are specific initiatives encouraging academics create OERs - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 how far away is a true 'tipping point' do you think? do you think? I agree that the concept of 'OER' is difficult for some to get their head around and that roots would be from sharing teaching resources -- are these copyrighted or not? As we start to look towards increased collaboration between industry, other universities and within classrooms using blended methods, as part of learning, the resources that are used and the products that are created could be conceptualized as OER. Who owns these products, what was contributed, what were the building blocks...? I'm thinking specifically of STEAM materials, such as coding and design templates, schematics, data and APIs. The types of 'educational content' should/will start to change rapidly, which will affect how we think about OER. Possibly, it may be easier to get one's head around. - sahoward sahoward Feb 20, 2016

Redesigning Learning Spaces
...and Learning Places [I've suggested adding 'learning places' to the title- glenn.finger glenn.finger] [I tend to agree with Glenn here as we need to need to consider the informal spaces often defined by student usage- kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Feb 18, 2016]- helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 Some thought leaders believe that new forms of teaching and learning require new spaces for teaching and learning. More universities are helping to facilitate these emerging models of education, such as the flipped classroom, by rearranging learning environments to accommodate more active learning. Educational settings are increasingly designed to facilitate project-based interactions with attention to mobility, flexibility, and multiple device usage. Wireless bandwidth is being upgraded in institutions to create “smart rooms” that support web conferencing and other methods of remote, collaborative communication. Large displays and screens are being installed to enable collaboration on digital projects and informal presentations. As tertiary education continues to move away from traditional lecture-based programming and to more hands-on scenarios, university classrooms will start to resemble real-world work and social environments that facilitate organic interactions and cross-disciplinary problem solving. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 The redesign of learning space in support of better pedagogical practice is, in my opinion, one of the many ways in which Australian Higher Eductation is leading, or at least up with the leaders. There are many, many examples of Universities that have invested significant thought and money on improving learning space to enhance the student experience and improve pedagogy. Harvard is bringing educators and architects together to redesign learning spaces: Ewan McIntosh talks about the seven spaces: - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 In my view, this is an exciting trend. A search of Flickr using 'learning spaces' shows the interesting designs of learning spaces. However, a literature review - see - ask the interesting question - i.e. whether new learning spaces are a catalyst, and/or merely one element in a range of school and systemic reform imperatives, that change teaching teaching practices and student responses in ways that improve learning outcomes. They conclude with a suggestion that "the focus should be on people and learning places not spaces"...and that " attachment and various bounded places that impact on social interactions critical to student engagement and learning"...which resonates well with 'social networks'. My sense is that the better learning space designs are increasingly learning place designs.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 7, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 10, 2016 good points Glenn - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 21, 2016 agree Glenn. of course as we move towards Education 3.0 , learning spaces are everywhere. then CONTEXT for pedagogical design is critical- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016agree with all these points above. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 While it may be possible to learn anywhere, the affordance of a well-designed space to specific learning can enhance the learning experience. Many faculties are moving towards simulation spaces that support specific learning e.g. a surgery, stock exchange, etc. but most university spaces are blandly generic to enable multiple uses. As we have less reliance on physical space needs with students opting to attend remotely, more dedicated use of learning spaces may be made to simulation spaces, that are tightly designed around specific learning. The scalability of specific spaces has always been a concern, but theme parks have addressed this with the ability to pass thousands of 'students' through tightly designed experiential learning spaces, in ways that engage the learner far beyond the level of engagement of most university learning spaces. A lot could be learnt from the educational integration with entertainment accomplished by major theme parks - mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 21, 2016 I think we also need to consider virtual spaces whether they be the LMS, a virtual world island or some other collaborative virtual space. Our students may only be on campus a few hours a week (or in the case of my university, 80% of students are never on campus). Informal learning spaces that are virtual are important too. - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 19, 2016 - brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 21, 2016 Fit for purpose - anywhere anytime. Will we be able to get to this for learning spaces/places? Will we be able to blend physical and digital learning experiences - for example a physical location that captures student experience via iBeacons ( used initially in retail industry ) blended with students reflective journaling via mobile device. iBeacons are already being used in many creative ways in schools around the world ( ).

Rethinking How Institutions Work
There is a focused movement to reinvent the traditional classroom paradigm and rearrange the entire formal education experience — a trend that is largely being driven by the influence of innovative learning approaches. Methods such as project- and challenge-based learning call for structures that enable students to move from one learning activity to another more organically, removing the limitations of seemingly disparate disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of these contemporary approaches has popularized the creative application of technology and fostered innovative designs of institutional models that link each class and subject matter to one another. As learning becomes more fluid and student-centered, some education leaders believe that schedules should be more flexible to allow opportunities for authentic learning to take place and ample room for independent study. Changing how learning takes place in classrooms is also requiring shifts in the business models of institutions, which are increasingly becoming more agile and open to trying new approaches - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016- jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016 I see this as very much a longer term trend, not because the demand wont exist, but more because HE Institutions will struggle to come to terms with it and respond accordingly. For me this is the area where the notion of 'disruption caused by technology' as proposed by Clayton Christensen, will impact most. US school High Tech High: and UK school School21: are models for Australian schools like Parramatta Marist: and Sydney Centre for Innovation in Learning: - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 Cost will be one of the major factors that drive universities to reconsider how they work. They cannot build enough bricks and mortar learning spaces to accommodate the range of learning experiences students need. This will become increasingly important as universities struggle to attract overseas students, willing to study at a distance, to make up for funding shortfalls - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 20, 2016

Rise of New Forms of Interdisciplinary Studies
According to the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, multidisciplinary research refers to concurrent exploration and activities in seemingly disparate fields. Digital humanities and computational social science research approaches are opening up pioneering areas of multidisciplinary research at libraries and innovative forms of scholarship and publication. Researchers, along with academic technologists and developers, are breaking new ground with data structures, visualization, geospatial applications, and innovative uses of open-source tools. At the same time, they are pioneering new forms of scholarly publication that combine traditional static print style scholarship with dynamic and interactive tools, which enables real-time manipulation of research data. Applying quantitative methods to traditionally qualitative disciplines has led to new research categories such as Distant Reading and Macroanalysis — the study of large corpuses of texts as opposed to close reading of a few texts. These emerging areas could lead to exciting new developments in education, but effective organizational structures will need to be in place to support this collaboration. Emergence of these new digital and technology-related disciplines is an indicator of the changing social and work landscape. I think this is an important trend as an indicator of new possibilities in work and learning. - sahoward sahoward Feb 20, 2016

Rise of STEAM Learning
In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on developing stronger science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and programs, as these disciplines are widely viewed as the means to boost innovation and bolster national economies. As a response to the focus on STEM learning at institutions, some education leaders believe there is the need for a more balanced curriculum that integrates disciplines such as the arts, design, and humanities into the sciences. This notion has fostered the STEAM learning movement, in which the A stands for “art+.” The company STEAM Education expands this definition to a fundamental philosophy that all disciplines can and should relate to each other to provide students with the big picture of how a wide variety of knowledge and skill sets tie into each other in the real world. In other words, technology use does not exclusively relate to advancing science and engineering; STEAM education is about engaging students in a multi and interdisciplinary learning context that values the humanities and artistic activities, while breaking down barriers that have traditionally existed between different classes and subjects. This aligns with the trend noted in the K-12 edition earlier. In Australia, there's a strong focus on STEM, but there's examples in schools where STEAM is evident. There is a debate emerging regarding STEM Vs STEAM, with suggestions that the "A" should be Arts, and even a suggestion that the 'A" might be 'Accounting...see In my view, STEAM makes sense in some project-based learning in higher education, such as architecture, additive manufacturing, etc.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 7, 2016
- j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 STEM and STEAM address conflicting agendas, STEM to boost the focus on 'hard sciences' over the arts, STEAM to boost the focus on the Arts over the 'hard sciences'. Both important agendas but contradictory. I prefer to support subjects on their own merit, any subject area that needs to be a subset of another (or collection of others), seems to be promoting its own demise.- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 An Australian preoccupation at the moment along with 'innovation' needs including in our report I would disagree that STEAM prioritizes arts over science, but I do agree that STEM valorizes hard science. I think it would be important to emphasize that integration of a range of disciplines is not a new approach, but a multidisciplinary approach with a new emphasis. However, the 'technology' component of STEAM/STEM has a different focus from learning through or with technology, to a stronger focus on Technology as a discipline. This distinction is important and one that needs to be clarified as this movement gains momentum, particularly in the current Australian excitement. - sahoward sahoward Feb 20, 2016 Particularly the point about Technology - often technology is mistaken for an integration of and not an engagement with innovative or developing technologies from a development perspective - Arduino or other robotics / electronics platforms are good starting points for engaging students in solving STE(A)M problems using a technological approach.[[user:jmascorella|1456045572] - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016I think a too extreme focus on STEM runs the real risk that we will lose sight of the role that the humanities play in shaping our culture and helping people explore the nature of human existence just when we discover that we don't need very many people working in industry/manufacturing and we need to come up with other ways that people can lead lives that are valued.

Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators & Curators
(- brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 21, 2016could I also add Curator to this title?) A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice in schools all over the world as students in across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content. Creativity, as illustrated by the growth of user-generated videos, maker communities, and crowdfunded projects in the past couple years, is increasingly the means for active, hands-on learning. This is an important agenda in ensuring that we understand what 'higher' means in ';higher education' and the narrative of a student as scholar. There is a sense that more attention is needed on students as creators and producers of new knowledge, in addition to consumers of knowledge. Technologies enable creativity, communication and collaboration which can assist this shift.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 7, 2016 - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016
- s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 a longer term trend I believe as it will be hard to effect this shift from delivery/transmission to co-creation and then to student creation. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 I see an effective culture of maker-based education simply being a challenge-based model predicated on creation. Making is generative play - it generates its own internal problems to solve, which can in turn be representative of more global or generic problem-solving. Another area where the teacher as practitioner, teacher as co-creator (and increasingly co-creator as teacher) are defining the processes of learning. Community makerspaces often operate with no formal mentoring or teaching roles, instead participants derive direction from their own curiosity about what others are doing. Entering into these spaces gives you the expectation of becoming an explorer, but also a guide and fellow-traveller to others who enter the co-working/co-creation, co-laboratory space.- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016- helen.farley helen.farley Feb 20, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 I'm using the term 'learning leader' for university-teacher academics at the moment...any views please?

Shift to Deep Learning Approaches
There is a growing emphasis in tertiary education on deeper learning approaches, defined by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation as the mastery of content that engages students in critical thinking, problem-solving, collaboration, and self-directed learning. In order to remain motivated, students need to be able to make clear connections the real world, and how the new knowledge and skills will impact them. Project-based learning, challenge-based learning, inquiry-based learning, and similar methods foster more active learning experiences, both inside and outside the classroom. As the enabling role of technologies learning crystalizes, educators are leveraging these tools to connect the curriculum with real life applications. These approaches are decidedly more student-centered, allowing learners to take control of how they engage with a subject, even brainstorming solutions to pressing global problems and beginning to implement them in their communities. An increasing number of Australian schools are connecting closely with High Tech High in the US and the New Tech Network, key proponents of these ideas. - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 evidence in universities in Oz beyond the obvious???

Added by Panel as New Trends

Growing Interest in Competency Based Education
I believe that we should very definitely see 'Competency Based Learning' or 'Competency Based Education' as a signficant and important trend in Higher Education. It has already become an accepted approach in the US (i.e Western Governors University etc.) and I believe that it is very definitely challenging the more traditional notion of a Higher Education outcome that is in essence based upon attendance or hours in class. It is also challenging us to write better and more accurate learning outcomes and more constructively aligned assessments. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 26, 2016
- k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 One of the risks of competency based learning that has been seen in the training sector is the potential for very granular and discrete competency descriptors to fail to provide opportunities for innovation and extension. If we are working towards a system that is about enabling a future that is currently unknown we are probably going to have to think about what that means in describing the requisite competencies that learners should be demonstrating. Can a competency-based model accommodate broad capabilities and attributes that enable abstraction or is the current focus on the concrete inevitable?
Totally agree as in the VET sector the need to complete and assess accurately (primarily from the training orgainsations perspective to pass audit) it does mean that academic staff often will not look towards having students opportunities for creative or innovative work. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 18, 2016 - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 maybe its because I'm in a Go8 - dunno- but I'm not seeing anything like this move in Universities comments? - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 21, 2016 Maybe there is an opportunity to change this stigma within VET? It can be very successfully used to foster innovation; as a student works toward a level of competency (not mastery) they could still achieve this by demonstrating an innovative process or procedure, without having to actually complete the competency the same way. Similarly, the outcome may be buried within the innovative outcome. The problem may lie with the trainer, not the curriculum.

Rise of More Authentic Assessment
I think that educational technology advances, the proliferation of mobile devices, enhancements in speed (via bandwidths and compression) have brought us to a point where we can seriously consider 'authenticity' as an increasingly valid factor in assessment design. In line with an 'authentic' approach to learning design, we should be ensuring that the assessments that 'measure' these authentic learning outcomes are themselves, fair, valid, reliable, constructively aligned and as authentic as possible to a real world outcome. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 25, 2016 - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 1, 2016 I agree. As assessment design should enable and promote authentic assessment, which is informed by 'real world' and industry understandings and expectations, technologies can assist in realising by extending and enhancing the pen and paper forms of assessment types.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 7, 2016 - s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 at QUT our Real World Learning 2020 vision includes our ambition to have authentic assessment in all units by 2020.- mkeppell mkeppell This is a critical issue in VET and authentic assessment is at the crux of learning outcomes. there were 4 excellent case studies completed by the VET sector about eAssessment and the importance of authenticity in the training context that really delve into this - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 18, 2016
- j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 It would be good to see assessment of student learning held to the standard required to measure learning in research, but we are a long way from that level of authenticity. - brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 21, 2016Assessment systems from K-20 over the years seemed to test memory recall not actual acquired understanding and knowledge of the learner. We all remember "bubble testing" - when in doubt mark 'C'. Technologies has the ability to support authentic assessments and in ways we haven't seen before. The ability to blend physical and digital environments gives learners the ability to truly demonstrate their competency and learning. Blending together simple and accessible technologies like Point of View (POV) glasses and mobile technology allows learners to capture a skill, a research process or a collection of evidence artefacts. Video, HDR (high dynamic range images) and audio can all be captured as evidence via mobile technology that can have further authentication with geolocation and other forms of meta data which can then be easily synchronised to support badges and/or micro-creditation. Combine this with tools that allow learners to share and continue to build upon their assessment artefacts with new skills you have a very powerful solution (personal value) that is transferrable for the learner beyond the walls of the institution.

Combined with Existing RQ4 Challenges

Recognition of learning from informal as well as formal contexts
Data tracking and alternative credentialling allow institutions to recognise a broader range of student learning and it seems a likely consequence that "course packages" or "content collections"offered by higher education will need to become more flexible and adaptable to allow for more personalised and student-directed learning activities. How long before a student can approach a university with a "passport" of learning and "create their own" course of study based on current interests and future directions? - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 1, 2016. - s2.vaughan s2.vaughan Feb 13, 2016 how long indeed. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 17, 2016 The introduction, two years ago, of User Defined Codes for units and programs of study in Australia paved the way for this type of customisation of study programs; systems like Deakin Digital are enabling a recognition of learning from contexts outside formal education; and the unbundling of programs in universities means the savvy student will already be able to adopt a "choose your own adventure" approach to structuring their study paths. Badging, and other alternative credentialing models are creating the infrastructure to allow this to occur. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Badging seems to be the first step in this, with dynamic internal recognition of student learning within programs. This may then lead to recognition of learning between programs and degrees, and eventually to recognition of learning between institutions, and finally, from informal learning opportunities. Universities will mirror internally badging processes used in open learning spaces, and may offer recognition of formal learning into open badging systems, but the recognition of external micro credentialling into formal academic credentials challenges the core aspects of university accreditation and values, and will be a long and difficult journey. - janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016students with working / life experience< MOOCs and studying across institutions to complete their degree studies creates opportunities around the learning that institutions recognise. Data captured via eportfolio tools, badging can help provide the evidence needed. The recognition of informal is part of the RPL process in the VET sector. However, with the rise of badges it would be helpful for some standards to be developed to provide consistency of information being contained as the metadata. Also the longevity of the badges if a Registered Training Organisation or training provider may close which could impact on the authenticating the metadata of the badge. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 21, 2016 Recognition of work-based learning is becoming commonplace. For a fee, you can be guided through the process of documenting your prior learning and experience (, sometimes for entire qualifications ( helen.farley helen.farley Feb 20, 2016 [Editor's Note: This fits in with existing RQ4 Challenge "Blending Formal and Informal Learning" so I'm adding this discussion to RQ4.]

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New Trend Name
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