Research Question 2: What key technologies are missing from our list?

Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established technologies that some Australian tertiary institutions are using today that arguably ALL institutions should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What technologies that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should Australian tertiary institutions be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that Australian tertiary institutions should begin to take notice during the next four to five years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.

Compose your entries like this:

New Technology Topic
Brief description here (3-4 sentences)
Personalised Learning
Personalised learners will need to have a rich range of knowledge, skills, and attitudes to learn in a changing and ambiguous learning environment. Learners need digital literacies, an understanding of seamless learning, and also need to be aware of their own learning through self-regulated learning. “Gaining a literacy of the digital is thus one means by which the individual can retain a hold on the shape of his/her life in an era of increasing uncertainty” (Martin, 2008, p. 156). In addition learners need to be involved in assessment, embrace lifelong learning, and have a say in their learning pathways. Learners will need to be ‘chaos pilots’ to navigate the changing learning landscape Keppell, 2015.- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016

Added as new Development in Technology

EEG Technologies
...and their educational application. Use of low cost EEG headsets such from EMOTIV provide an ability to monitor student brain activity during learning and adjust learning activities in response. Live EEG display provides academics with immediate feedback on student cognitive engagement with lecture presentations and tutorial activities. Griffith University has research into the use of EEG to inform teachers of the effectiveness of the teaching activities - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 I'd like to add my support to the use of EEG headsets in education. Brain computer interfaces (BCI) can also be seen as an application of wearable technologies to monitor brain activity or create a brain-wave interface with educational applications.- V.Alvarez V.Alvarez Feb 21, 2016 I tend to agree with Jason and Victor (hi guys) that electroencephalography is worth keeping an eye on. What I'm not as certain about is the utility of these new approaches given how difficult and expensive proper EEG recording and analysis is. The technology is undoubtedly getting better but the inferences that can be drawn from a device with only a small number of electrodes used outside a controlled laboratory environment are questionable at best. I suspect that this technology might be huge in the future but my feeling is that this one is on the distant horizon. - jason.lodge jason.lodge Feb 22, 2016Cognitive Enhancement For the last couple of years I've been adding this one to the list and I'm going to keep doing so because I've not seen anything to convince me that this is not already a big issue. While we might not be considering brain stimulation, nootropics and other forms of supposed cognitive enhancement from an institutional or teaching perspective, reports continue to crop up claiming that students are already well down the path of using all sorts of enhancement technologies. Students essentially using performance enhancing drugs (or devices) is something I believe needs to stay on the radar despite us not necessarily thinking of different forms of cognitive enhancement as 'technologies' per se. There, I said it, I'll leave it alone again now. - jason.lodge jason.lodge Feb 22, 2016 Cognitive Computing - I don't think this is covered by any other topic. IBM's Watson is a well known example and Deakin University's implementation is Australia's first implementation in HE. Cognitive computing involves self-learning systems that use data mining, pattern recognition and natural language processing to mimic the way the human brain works. It can offer up scenarios. IT "learns" from past interactions. I think we will see more implementations in HE. The way in which this technology is leveraged in HE is limited only by our imagination and our budgets, anything from the enquiry type services at Deakin to underpinning research. j.stokker-j.stokker Saturday

Combined with Existing Developments in RQ1

The Crowd and its Role in Learning
The role of crowdsourcing is being felt increasingly across many areas of our lives. Students in creative industries are crowdsourcing funding for their creative projects, the process of crowdsourcing is probably an assessable activity in some design and business schools. Researchers are using crowd-sourced problem-solving strategies, distributed computing systems and similar approaches to extend their ability to process vast quantities of data. I think we'll also start to see through new models of collaborative learning that interaction with the crowd is already part of the process of learning. What was once a relatively small PLN can grow exponentially to an amorphous crowd that is informing the development of what we learn, and how we learn. The recent adage of "I keep my knowledge in my friends" can be extended to I keep my knowledge in my friends, my friends in my devices and my friends are everyone that I can engage with through my devices. Think about Duolingo in language learning as an example of these processes already in action - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 interesting- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016watching this space with great interest I agree crowdsourcing has potential in a research content and crowd funding is tragically already be used to fund students educations, however educational institutions facing ever diminishing funding from governments could turn to crowd funding. - stephan.ridgway stephan.ridgway Feb 18, 2016 The researchers in universities already have that available to them: - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 18, 2016 - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 21, 2016 [Editor's Note: This fits in very well with the discussions in existing RQ1 topic "Crowdsourcing", so we are adding these discussions there.]

Touchscreens and Interactive Tables
- gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 I'm wondering about the new generation of touch screens and interactive tables- it's a strong move towards a new form of collaboration, the cruiser we've got in the Futures Observatory at UWA is one of the most popular of all the stuff
- gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 heres the microsoft one: Microsoft Surface Hub – (to be released in July 2016) Unlock the power of the group with Microsoft Surface Hub, a powerful team collaboration device designed to advance the way people work together naturally. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 [Editor's Note: This fits in nicely with RQ1 topics mobile learning and electrovibration, and natural user interfaces. This discussion will be added to RQ1.]

The Digital Mesh - The Device Mesh
How the use of multiple devices connected to the Internet will affect communication with students and shape future (cross-device) educational applications?
Copied from Gartner ( The device mesh refers to an expanding set of endpoints people use to access applications and information or interact with people, social communities, governments and businesses. The device mesh includes mobile devices, wearable, consumer and home electronic devices, automotive devices and environmental devices — such as sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT). "In the postmobile world the focus shifts to the mobile user who is surrounded by a mesh of devices extending well beyond traditional mobile devices".- V.Alvarez V.Alvarez Feb 21, 2016
- brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 22, 2016The Internet of Things offers the potential for new and exciting ways to connect and engage evolving our understanding of the world around us shifting us from being a mobile user to a connected user. [Editor's Note: Nice! I can see this fitting in well with the Networked Objects and BYPD discussions in RQ1.]

Added to RQ4: Challenges

Managing Content and Technology Obsolescence
In the VET sector primarily because of the length of time that evidence must be kept, it is crucial that organisations consider obsolescence with the storage and retrieval of backups and put in place a digital preservation strategy to ensure that they will still be able to access these records. Also training organisations need to consider technology obsolescence when looking at purchasing or accessing systems for training to ensure longevity. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 18, 2016 [Editor's Note: This is a great point and reads more like a Challenge, so will be added to RQ4, combined with existing Challenge "Managing Knowledge Obsolescence."]

Other Key Points

Gamification and Educational Gaming
- s.defreitas s.defreitas Jan 14, 2016 - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 21, 2016
Gamification (e.g. badging) is in current use in universities internationally. Sites such as Khan Academy are piloting gamified techniques widely. Numbers of gamers internationally are growing, with particular growth in mobile games and online gaming. There is a significant evidence base of research that shows efficacy of games as learning tools. Learning Management systems such as Moodle have built in badging and gaming metaphors and tools. It is important that the higher education sector keeps pace with the learning approaches used in schools and that it keeps at the vanguard of immersive and interactive learning used through game metaphors (like gamification with levelling up, competition and collaboration and points won) as well as through simulations and games used most commonly in business and health contexts. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 I'd like to add my support to the inclusion of gamification.
- kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 24, 2016 It further strikes me that we might actually see the student's entire journey in the form of a game...or at least they might! In this respect, if a game were an appropriate metaphor, there might be more scope to build in opportunities to 'fail' and learn from such 'failure' and, similarly, seek assistance (external to the classroom) as and when needed to aid progress. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 24, 2016 yes gamification but I suppose its kinda broad- other topics are drawn from. - competition, progress, teams, motivation, digitization etc - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 17, 2016 Some years ago I proposed a model for use in Drama education that I called DramatARGy, where I tried to blend the idea of an immersive, always-on, alternate/augmented reality game. The model proposed utilising the notion of "metaxis" as the driver for constant role-based learning. Today, I am working on developing a conception of modern learners as "transmedial" - where they are framed as data generators, data collators, data analysts - they become the platform for their own learning. The technology is extant - the quantified self is technically possible with consumer grade technology - the digital trace is permanent (and immutable once deposited in the blockchain). We are able to be players in a game, or gamified, space simply by entering the space. Consent is implied in most commercial contexts and we need to navigate the ethical landscape in the education sector. But the transmedial, gamified-self is simply a matter of applying an experience point algorithm to what we do, and this can even be done retrospectively. Gamification may well be the domain of game masters more than gamers. Data visualisation will provide the scoreboards we use to claim prizes. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 can you explain the terms a bit more please Kim - or reference, I don't really understand
- j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 The use of games in higher education could be differentiated into: Badges/Microcredit/Gamification reward systems (replacing Badges/Microcredit); Simulations and Games; and Virtual Worlds and Game Spaces (replacing Virtual Worlds). The use of simulations and digital games to simulate learning experiences remains a significant area of educational technology development and research. Likewise the use of gaming approaches in badging and the blending of computer games and virtual worlds, firmly retain gaming as an important topic for the Horizon Report. While it has remained at the 3-4 year Horizon in the research process, this represents new inclusions into the topic rather than a stagnation of the technology, and there are many other topics that would be removed under such criteria e.g. online learning and virtual reality, which also have regular infusion of new technology and educational application. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 21, 2016 bit of a mystery this one that's its still so 'far out' especially when I look back on all that Second Life stuff (had such fun!) 5-7 years ago. Simulations and Serious Digital Game Based Learning Similar to the Virtual Laboratories Simulations and Serious Digital Game Based Learning will be an important method for students to gain systems knowledge and more importantly hands-on experience prior to being sent out into a high risk job. Simulations allow users to take risks and fail in a safe environment and to then repeat to develop a wider skill set. Though this is still in its early stages of adoption in the VET sector it can underpin the mainstream delivery of content via just-in-time hands on training and on-the-job training in a safe environment. This moves learners away from ‘drill and practice’ methods being employed in some elearning systems. The Broome Maritime Simulation Centre is a perfect example of how Simulations and Serious Digital Game Based Learning can have a positive impact on the learners. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Jan 28, 2016 - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 21, 2016 - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 While simulations have been used in many educational contexts, the more recent developments seem to be related to how simulations draw upon real world data, and generate new data layers that can inform not only decisions about learning and achievement but feedback into real world understandings of the models being used. This could be in the form of reconceptualisation, but could also become evident in more tangible forms by engaging fabrication technologies that turn the simulation into a practical exercise in manufacturing. Think about applying engineering solutions in rich simulations that result in 3D models that are ready for production via manufacturing technologies; similar results could also be evident in Design, Medicine, Art, etc. [Editor's Note: We retired this topic in 2015 because while very interesting, the topic was voted into every Horizon Report and never moved to the near-term horizon, meaning it has stalled out.]

In many respects conspicuous by their absence, I see ePortfolios increasingly being adopted into the main stream. At our own institutution after a number of years of seeking to promote uptake (push) we are now starting to get increasing demand (pull) including from within out Human Resources area for assistance in using them to support professional development. I'd be happy to acknowledge that this is mainstream practice in other institutions if that is the case, but, at least here, that has not been the case. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 26, 2016 - mkeppell mkeppell - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 7, 2016While there has been previous work on ePortfolios, there's a resurgence, particularly by regulatory authorities and employers for evidence by graduates in making a case about their distinctiveness and graduate capabilities. ePortfolios can draw upon additional technology trends; e.g. demonstration of capabilities through examples of creation of products and projects using range of digital media, social networks (e.g. LinkedIn), digital badging, authentic assessment, etc.- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 ah good points to suggest a resurgence of interest- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016ePortfolios as a learning resource that also aid employment recruitment processes, RPL applications - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 17, 2016 This is another area where our digital trace can be collated and curated. The automation of collation for portfolios is a real possibility, leaving it up to the individual to curate and organise the portfolio evidence for each specific context they want to represent themselves. To draw a museum, or library analogy; imagine the portfolio (passport, backpack, whatever) as the accumulation of all evidence of learning across every domain an individual traverses. It becomes the "stacks", the basis of the "permanent collection" and harvested for curatorial management of specific exhibits.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 21, 2016 I see a renewed interest in ePortfolio in the context of poor graduate employability figures and tools to assist with improving employability j.stokker-j.stokker Saturday [Editor's Note: While ePortfolios certainly have attracted a lot of attention, they fit in with several trends and may not be large enough to warrant their own slot.]

Blockchain Technologies
Blockchain is basically the ledger system underlying Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. The technology itself can be utilised to track and store value of all kinds - and I believe credentials will be one of the next big areas of value transaction that will adopt this technology. It has the potential to address the many trust and security concerns that people hold around the use of badging and other visual systems of credentialing. Tying credentials to a transparent system like blockchain will bring unprecedented change int he ways we acknowledge learnign and achievement. See the Reilly explainer: - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 1, 2016 I agree - there is an exciting possibility that this technology could enable some form of flexible qualification infrastructure transcending institutional and national boundaries - scary for established institutions but I think a necessary component of next generation qualification models. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 14, 2016- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 interested in this - helen.farley helen.farley Feb 21, 2016 [Editor's Note: While this is interesting, we do not feature specific branded products.] - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 22, 2016 The "blockchain" notion is becoming more generic and the infrastructure that underpins Bitcoin is being adapted to other contexts and reengineered in news ways - Keybase, Ethereum, Proof of Existence, are all leveraging the technology in ways that will impact education. Maybe refer to it as "open ledgers" if a more generic reference point is required.