Research Question 4: Significant Challenges Impeding Australian Tertiary Education Technology Adoption

What do you see as the key challenges related to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry that Australian tertiary education institutions will face during the next five years?

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NOTE: The Significant Challenges are sorted into three time-related categories based on their appearance in previous Horizon Report editions -- solvable challenges are those that we both understand and know how to solve, but seemingly lack the will; difficult challenges are ones that are more or less well-understood but for which solutions remain elusive; wicked challenges, the most difficult, are complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will even be possible. In your responses to the trends below, feel free to explore why or why not the challenge should be in its specific time-related category.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

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Challenge Name
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Balancing our Connected and Unconnected Lives
With technology now at the center of many daily activities, higher education institutions must help learners understand how to balance their usage with other developmental needs. To prevent students from getting lost in the abundant sea of information and new media, universities and colleges should encourage mindful use of digital tools while making them aware of their digital footprint and the accompanying implications. As education aligns closer with technological trends, instructors will have to promote this balance, facilitating opportunities where students feel, digest, reflect, touch, and pursue sensorial experiences that are crucial to developing character and integrity. Striking a balance and guiding learners to personal success in their own habits is especially critical for incoming generations of students that have come to rely on technology. While there are plenty of studies and articles discussing healthy amounts of screen time for children, there are no prescribed or agreed upon models for adults when it comes to learning. Furthermore, institutions have a responsibility to ensure that when students are connected it is with the purpose of transformation — not just replicating an experience that could easily take place without technology. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 this is an interesting one and presumably it links to the slight move towards learning design, e.g. my interesting in learning design methodologies and teaching people how to design to create viable futures, but also about the impact of neuroscience in learning and teaching.
- k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016- helen.farley helen.farley Feb 20, 2016 I think that limiting the discussion to issues of "screentime" and "online time" etc are somewhat moot. We are so deeply implicated in the digital world that our digital trace is happening constantly whether we are intentionally connected or otherwise. Intentionality might be a better frame for thinking about this aspect. - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 9, 2016I believe that there is a complementary and important challenge relating to the tensions between professional and personal identities in a digital world. Concepts such as eProfessionalism, digital footprint, digital identity, privacy, etc and understanding the positive and the negative impact of social media have become important, in my view. We are seeing examples where students are inappropriately communicating in social media, for example, which they might believe is 'private', but can jeopardise their professional futures. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 - mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016Interesting challenge, but no one was waiting at the library when I went to uni warning about the dangers of book time, though I undoubtedly wasted many hundreds of hours in the library. The change (or return) to illuminated books is more about guiding students to resources. Just as they could once have spent their time reading comics and magazines instead of academic works, now they can facebook or Instagram instead. The problem has not changed, just the media. The real problem is one of overabundance, a digital obesity epidemic, but it is also a boon, and as technologies mature to cope with such abundance, such as AI Assistants, students will be able to achieve far more than was dreamed possible. Indeed, already it is evident that what is achievable by even a mediocre PhD student today, far exceeds what we would have expected of the best literature review a decade ago. As assistive writing and researching technologies improve, the same will apply to most current academic activities. Calls for limiting student access to 'screen time' maybe a response to our own fears of being eclipsed and made obsolete. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 We still need to think about what we expect our teaching staff (instructors) to do and whether they are responsible for every aspect of a student's personal, social and educational development. This is really a journey for both staff and students with both contributing to the outcomes. The more we can include students as partners in the process the more likely we will have a meaningful outcome for all involved in the journey. - sherman.young sherman.young Feb 19, 2016 Yep, listen and learn from our students. They can build a lot of this stuff for us. Though we are often concerned that our digital devices are keeping us from our families and free time, those devices are also making it easier to maintain those social connections that help us live longer.- helen.farley helen.farley Feb 20, 2016 An issue worth raising is the double-edged sword of how some students benefit socially from being able to "hide" behind the devices, as they struggle with peers so severely on a day to day basis. For these students, the device becomes a connection within their disconnection and makes school life bearable...and does not necessarily have a negative impact on how they might "improve" socially if the device was removed so they were forced to interact - eg a child who is severely bullied, on the ASD spectrum with social manifestations etc. On the other hand, what is the "problem" when students are sitting side by side and not interacting on a personal level, but rather "connecting" with others primarily through disconnected activities. Nevertheless, as previously mentioned by others, a balance of types of interactions and connections is desirable - but also should not become the focus of the device...rather the range of activities presented to students (at all levels and ages). Is connectedness more deeply ingrained in the learning experiences and value added through the technologies? Adult students exposed to a range of possibilities where they can experience "authentic" connectedness and participate in deeper learning will [possibly] develop and model a deeper understanding of digital citizenship and responsibility. - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 21, 2016- jmascorella jmascorella Feb 22, 2016 I think there is a need to focus on concepts such as mindfullness and metacognition, helping people develop the skills to intentionally focus their energies effectively as respond to an environment that can be very distracting. The debates about device usage in class illustrate the concerns some staff have about the ability of students to focus for extended periods of time, the work of writers like Nicholas Carr (The Shallows) and others, reflect an anxiety that our attention is being framed in different ways in response to technology. I think it is important to be aware that new modes may merely be different, not worse, but I can't see the debate getting any clearer, especially as virtual assistants become ever more capable through advances in artificial intelligence.- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016 Whilst i think we need to teach the balance, we need to model the balance too. Each time we saturate yet another lesson, task, assessment etc, in technology, we are teaching students that is the only way to connect or get information. On one hand, we are providing an "opportunity" for them to connect with us in a number of ways - how many really do for more than a question about their grade or a quick "thanks" when given feedback. Rarely do I get more than this. Balance needs to start with modelling - we need to to be disconnected (from tech) in our classes from time to time too. This provides opportunities to write, sketch, draw and generate ideas that aren't always behind a screen. - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 22, 2016 Agree - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016

Blending Formal and Informal Learning
Traditional approaches to teaching and learning with roots in the 18th century and earlier are still very common in many institutions, and often stifle learning as much as they foster it. As the Internet has brought the ability to learn something about almost anything at the palm of one’s hand, there is an increasing interest in the kinds of self-directed, curiosity-based learning that have long been common in museums, science centers, and personal learning networks. These, along with life experience and other more serendipitous forms of learning fall under the banner of informal learning, and serve to enhance student engagement by encouraging them to follow their own learning pathways and interests. Many experts believe that a blending of formal and informal methods of teaching and learning can create an education environment that fosters experimentation, curiosity, and above all, creativity. In this sense, an overarching goal is to cultivate the pursuit of lifelong learning in all students and educators. However, formally acknowledging and rewarding skills both educators and students master outside of the classroom is compounding this challenge.- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016 - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 I suspect the application of new forms of data tracking will be one of the key aspects in recognising learning. The focus for many areas has been about prioritising assessment. The ability to create, access and share a digital record of learning is becoming more ubiquitous. When the process can include elements that don't require a learner to actively include learning we will start to see a very different image of learning. Analytics engines do not have to be tied to LMS and LTI - anything a person does in a digital context has the potential to be recorded and mapped as evidence of learning. As long as this data is served to the individual to be able to curate then there seems to be a model evidencing learning across many domains of activity. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Blended is rarely seen as an opportunity to offer online and off-campus experiences together, using specific approaches and technologies not used in online or on-campus teaching. More often it is the use of online learning approaches within on campus courses. This does encourage the use of learning approaches and technologies enabled by online environments, but also can introduce the worst elements of both environments. Online courses should be optimised for purely online students, not crippled by attempting to cater for on-campus students as well, similarly purely on campus courses should not have to include online activities that would be better conducted on campus. True blended learning should be seen as separate from online and on-campus offerings, with specific learning environments and pedagogies that support the integrated on and off-campus learning options of students. Such environments can use telepresence, VR, virtual worlds, and remote laboratories to enable on and off campus students to work together on learning activities, synchronously and asynchronously. This is however, different to on campus or purely online learning. The Griffith University Learning Laboratory (GULL) project aims to explore such true blended learning environments. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 Let's consider the world our "classroom" and design learning activities that are dependent on interacting with the wider world rather than narrow experiences limited by the resources directly provided by the university. Perhaps one of the issues here is the difficulty many course developers or facilitators have in creating a truly flexible or blended style of teaching/ with anything, we only know what different looks like by the experiences we have had. Exposure to successfully and authenticly flexible learning experiences is enhanced through collaborative discussion - beyond the individual tertiary institution - and through those teaching the courses being immersed in flexible learning experiences themselves. The challenge is to explore possibilities (with the risk of failure) together with students - working together to find ways of enabling access and learning that use the technologies available to change the current learning experiences for all involved - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 21, 2016 The boundary between formal and informal is interesting and reflects I think the changing place of qualifications in society. Historically, a single period of formal education was followed by life of predominantly informal learning (including a certain amount of formal but small scale training workshops). Increasingly we are seeing people seeking ever more qualifications throughout their life as they seek promotion/specialisation or shift focus in their careers. Much of what I see being talked about as blended formal and informal (including much of the discussion around MOOCs) fails to acknowledge the purposes the student has in engaging in learning activities, and is instead distracted by the seductive economic illusion of "free education" or a misplaced belief that access to content is limiting the ability of people to learn (at least in 'western' economies). Aligning informal education with formal seems inevitably to lead to some form of RPL activity which for anything non-trivial appears to be very expensive and ultimately unsustainable and inconsistent in outcomes. If we talk about drawing on experiences from outside the institution as part of formal education then I think that this is clearly good pedagogical practice - drawing on personal experience is always a good place to start teaching, doing so in a large scale systematic manner is possible but experience suggests that it can be challenging to find and manage sufficient internship or placement opportunities to support the entirety of the student population. One response would be to turn things around and start with a context where informal learning is possible and bring formal learning to that place (community context, workplace etc.) rather than making the student come to us, this has all sorts of atractive pedagogical consequences but at the price of considerable resources and complexity for the providers of the formal education.- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016 True, and can work well (integrating work and education). On some level, though, the work starts to become more engaging than the education and need to continue becomes less interesting. We found this during a program run where we integrated the workplace into the school. As great as it was, there were drawbacks (beyond cost) where students didn't care about the experience. They didn't see it as work but "school". Work placement worked better, but still created an issue where students didn't see the relevance of the education because they had "achieved" it by then. - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 22, 2016

Competing Models of Education
New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to the traditional models of higher education where students typically receive instruction by faculty or teaching assistants per credit hour over four years, on-campus. Across the board, institutions are looking for ways to provide a high quality of service and more learning opportunities at lower costs. While massive open online courses are at the forefront of these discussions, a range of adult learning programs are creating innovative models that emphasize human interaction and multidimensional learning by cultivating 21st century skills such as intercultural communication and social entrepreneurship. Additionally, competency-based education, which tracks student skills instead of credit hours, is emerging to disrupt existing credit-hour systems. As these new platforms arise, there is a growing need to frankly evaluate the models and determine how to best support collaboration, interaction, and assessment at scale. It is clear that simply capitalizing on new technology is not enough; the new models must use these tools and services to engage students on a deeper level. - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 I think that our challenge is going to be that of establishing how we ensure a 'blend' of competing models of education as opposed to 'competition' particluary in a likely far more fragmented and 'disrupted' HE market.
- gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 important to use Australian terminology here (not 'Faculty') . MOOCs are no longer 'at the forefront' any more, but there's stronger moves towards considering paid for accredited digital learning, typically through private-public partnerships e.g. Swinburne Online - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 9, 2016Models, such as MOOCs, have raised issues of both scale and quality, along with challenges of monetisation, entry requirements, and a demand for individual courses/subject enrolments in higher education as opposed to more conventional degree programs. It seems that all offerings now need to be seen as being online, including on campus offerings having online enhancement. There's a sense that there's a need for higher education institutions to be dynamic and agile to shape and respond to challenges which present opportunities. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 Unbundled models that include evidence of learning from a range of activity will be a key game-changer in this space. I think this is where the educational version of the blockchain will see its most obvious emergence. The recent discussion at Singularity Hub about blockchain enabling "ownerless" corporations to exist could also be extended to include "ownerless Education"; Education where traditional systemic influences, and societal control is excised simply by the existence of a complete ledger of interactions around learning. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016I agree absolutely about the role of the blockchain and similar technologies as an enabler.
- j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 MOOC's represented a scalability experiment of online courses, but quality content and learning experiences remain the essential ingredients. Content is producible but few institutions are willing to invest in the production values to differentiate themselves in this way, and the authenticity of those delivering such content can overcome production values, otherwise students would all be watching videos instead of lectures. The learning experience, however, remains the Achilles Heel of the MOOC, and while a few can afford the hundreds of teaching assistants needed to scale such experiences, most institutions can not. This entire trend is dependent on some shift in the positional value of existing qualifications and the qualification system. Internationally the accredited degree is incredibly valuable as a tool for facilitating employment and immigration by skilled people and its hard to imagine a new model having the same impact immediately. More likely is some form of professionally accredited qualification valued by a internationally operating industry with the incentives of needed to maintain a defined set of skills and knowledge in their workforce (as opposed to simply hiring on the open market as needed) and the scale to justify the investment - I keep watching the accountants and the IT profession, both have well-focussed skill sets in areas that are plausibly able to be verified at a relatively low cost and which are amenable to technology assisted education (such as automatic feedback and marking systems) in ways that other fields would find challenging.- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016

Creating Authentic Learning Opportunities
Authentic learning, especially that which brings real life experiences into the classroom, is still all too uncommon in schools. Authentic learning is seen as an important pedagogical strategy, with great potential to increase the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of learning strategies that incorporate real life experiences, technology, and tools that are already familiar to students, and interactions from community members are examples of approaches that can bring authentic learning into the classroom. Practices such as these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do. - mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016 - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 I believe that the increased uptake of authentic learning (and assessment) underpinned by an alignment to 'competency based learning (and training)' has the potential to provide a strong pedagogical framework to guide us through the challenges I believe that we will face and are facing. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 Challenge-based models seem to hold the most promise for authenticity; especially when the model can posit responsibility for defining the challenge with the learner. Most current examples of PBL/CBL rely on the educator to create the frames and focus; an authentic student-centred, collaborative challenge will be emergent and practice-led not simply starting with a launchpad constructed by educators. The difference...and what enables CBL to be more authentic is that the task remains open ended throughout the research stage and only takes shape as students develop a pathway of discovery. In determining the best way to distribute or share results, an end "product" is developed - as an authentic response to the challenge undertaken. - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016 - kelli.mcgraw kelli.mcgraw Feb 18, 2016 Drives to create authentic 'learning opportunities' must acknowledge the need to adopt a corresponding assessment model. Students will always be reluctant to take risks in their learning when their grade is at stake - and rightfully so, as grade point averages are still used by industry for employment selection. It is too easy for HE teachers to claim that their learning/assessment is 'authentic' because it mimics something that happens in industry, when really students are often asked to produce decontextualised work that is never seen by anyone besides the teacher that marks it. Changes to assessment models are key to changing approaches to learning/pedagogy. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Authentic Learning as a term is problematic, as a learning experience by its very nature is often differentiated from a truly authentic experience. Learning surgery or landing a plane by getting in and doing it does have drawbacks. Simulations and descriptive learning experiences try to be as authentic as they can, but will always fall short, even work placement experiences will fall short of a truly authentic experience by the nature of supervision or reduced responsibility involved. It is also not clear at which point on this continuum learning is optimised, the stresses of real workplaces are unlikely to be such, but neither is an abstracted descriptive lecture experience. Somewhere in between, for each learning experience, must be the optimal point for learning, but Authentic Learning pre-supposes that this be as true to the real world work environment as possible, and presumably the same as, or indeed even a worst case real world environment, as many good workplace environments may not offer opportunities to learn what could occur. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016"the best simulation is the real world" rather than faking authenticity, I think we should be talking as I discuss above how we bring effective formal education to the learner in their context. - V.Alvarez V.Alvarez Feb 22, 2016 Virtual and augmented reality technologies (mediated by mobile or wearable devices) can be used to capture, share and re-enact real life experiences. VR can simulate spaces, objects and activities to reproduce an image of a reality that is not always accesible (i.e. marine/diving and space agency training). AR maps the activities in the real world (i.e. school field-trips). Learning affordances include developing skills in context, tangible manipulation and exploration, improved immersion, ubiquitous and situated learning, and facilitation of social and collaborative learning tasks.

Expanding Access
The global drive to increase the number of students participating in undergraduate education is placing pressure across the system. The oft-cited relationship between earning potential and educational attainment plus the clear impact of an educated society on the growth of the middle class is pushing governments to encourage more and more students to enter universities and colleges. In many countries, however, the population of students prepared for undergraduate study is already enrolled — expanding access means extending it to students who may not have the academic background to be successful without additional support. Many in universities feel that these institutions do not have sufficient time and resources to help this set of students. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 19, 2016 Surprised this one did not attract some attention? The question of access brings up the current issue of differential pricing for different groups of students undertaking the same program through different channels or in different locations. Expanding access is not just about admission requirements and pathways into the university but also what should be the price of participation? - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016I find Martin Trow's (1973) analysis particularly pertinent to this challenge. He is responsible for the Elite/Mass/Universal model that I think still explains much of what we are seeing in the sector domestically and internationally. If access is expanded, the resulting qualifications are seen as having a different value - remembering that the three types can co-exist. The US is already experiencing the shift from Mass to Universal with the 2 year associate's degree, and the consequent qualification inflation and general devaluing of the common qualification. The other nasty trend is the likely reduction in the number of good jobs that are available in the economy, with the likely further pressure that is going to place on the qualification system as a tool for efficiently selecting employees. Be nice if we could talk about education and access in terms of the wider social good it generates but the issue is paying for it.

Improving Digital Literacy
With the proliferation of the Internet, mobile devices, and other technologies that are now pervasive in education, the traditional view of literacy as the ability to read and write has expanded to encompass understanding digital tools and information. This new category of competence is affecting how education institutions address literacy issues in their curriculum objectives and teacher development programs. Lack of consensus on what comprises digital literacy is impeding many colleges and universities from formulating adequate policies and programs that address this challenge. Discussions among educators have included the idea of digital literacy as equating to competence with a wide range of digital tools for varied educational purposes, or as an indicator of having the ability to critically evaluate resources available on the web. However, both definitions are broad and ambiguous. Compounding this issue is the notion that digital literacy encompasses skills that differ for educators and learners, as teaching with technology is inherently different from learning with it - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 20, 2016 Clearly, the requirement to be functionally literate (in this case digitally literate) is going to be as fundamentally important to succeeding in the Information Age and Knowledge Economy as reading, writing and arithmetic were to the Industrial Age. In the same way that the move from Agrarian to Industrial economy was enabled via an Industrial Revolution, I think that we are now in the midst of an 'Information Revolution' moving us from Industrial to Information Economy. If that is an appropriate metaphor then it probably assists us in understanding the functional importance of literacy and the challenges that many will face in acquiring it. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 yes something like that, but the biggest issue is that we are undertaking hugely expensive long term higher education for preparing our students for jobs and professionals that simply wont exist in the future, oh maybe that's in the 'keeping education relevant'.. Anyway the key skills are futures thinking, foresight and the like, not just 'literacy' - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 9, 2016Digital literacy is, of course, only one of the nine elements of digital citizenship. Key point is that digital literacy needs to be seen as being interrelated to a range of significant challenges - e.g. digital identity, digital rights and responsibilities, digital law, etc. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 The emphasis on content engagement needs to be reconsidered as Gilly has highlighted. Learning outcomes will need to reference attributes and capabilities far more than content and currency. Issues around digital identity, academic integrity, digital rights, etc are likely to be negated by data systems that provide transparency and openness, an unambiguous audit trail. (Yes, blockchain again!) - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Tertiary Education should place its incoming benchmark at that expected at the end of secondary education, and this is quite high with respect to digital literacy but also well defined, but universities should then make a contribution and expectation of what should be achieved during the tertiary experience, to a benchmark on graduation, informed by industry expectations. The problem exists for mature age students, who may enter programs functionally digitally illiterate, and require bridging and support programs. Such expectations would of course require academics and university support staff to be equally digitally literate, both in their own practice and ability to improve student digital literacy. - mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016 Adult students are often today, extensive "users" of technology but do not necessarily connect this use with new ways of learning. It is as if the two worlds continue to parallel and not intersect. There may also be a lack of connection to challenges and issues such as digital identity, footprint, responsibility, copyright and creative commons licensing. - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 21, 2016 - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016We also need to acknowledge and address effectively the issue of staff (academic) digital literacy which frankly is woeful. (see below)This is also part of the need for immersion in new learning experiences for academic staff - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016

Integrating Technology in Teacher Education
Teacher training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline
and profession. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of digital competence, training in the digital-supported teaching methods is still too uncommon in teacher education and in the preparation of teachers.129 As teachers begin to realize that they are limiting their students by not helping them to develop and use digital competence skills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training is being offset through professional development or informal learning, but digital media literacy is not yet the norm. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking, and thus skills and standards based on tools and platforms have proven to be somewhat ephemeral. - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 9, 2016The commentary here on technology in initial teacher education (ITE) programs is deeper and broader than 'digital media literacy' or 'digital literacy'. The challenge is that it requires a better policy response, based upon understandings that the growing research base about Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) which suggests that there is indeed a new knowledge base for teachers; e.g. more than Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) proposed by Shulman in 1986/1987 prior to the Internet and the technological changes during the last 30 years. In essence, Shulman proposed that teachers undertook a Model of Pedagogical Reasoning and Action and this gave insights into the knowledge base for teachers - to know their content and how to teach it. Subsequently, Mishra and Koehler proposed TPACK, and writers are suggesting that it is the intersection of Technological Knowledge (TK) and PCK which represents a new knowledge base for teachers. While their seminal journal article Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge has been cited more than 3600 times, it was not cited and TPACK was not referred to in the 2014 TEMAG report. TEMAG was made aware of this, but deliberately chose not to refer to the challenges of new technologies and teaching and learning in an online world. Both the review of the Australian Curriculum and the TEMAG report could have been written for a pre-1993 analogue world. In summary, it is a challenge for policy to be informed by important research. - glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 9, 2016ITE programs need to assist ITE students to understand the distinctions between the ICT Capability (implemented and developed as a General Capability in all Learning Areas), and the Technologies Learning Area which includes Design and Technology and Digital Technologies subject. The Certificate IV in Training and Assessment is mandatory for all practitioners in the VET sector. As part of this qualification there are core units and electives, which there is an imported unit from the TAE Diplomas that covers facilitating with technology. However, it would be pertinent for this unit to move into a core at Certificate IV level to ensure that all VET practitioners have the basic skill set for supporting students to achieve their learning outcomes. Even more critical teachers/trainers need to be taught how technology can be used to augment their classroom but be taught the mindset that technology must have a specific purpose and not use it (technology) for the sake of it eg use SAMR model to work out the affordances of the technology proposed.This will come from better training of new teachers/trainers. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 18, 2016 - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 ITE is being challenged by best practices occurring in K12 education and other academic faculties. Funding however for dedicated simulation spaces (e.g. model classrooms, remote video feeds from K12 schools, animatronics and virtual teaching simulations) and of course modern learning spaces, are often lacking as education faculties have seen markedly less investment in learning spaces and simulation technologies than medicine and sciences. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 ITE and education faculties in most universities are not seen as the leaders in learning innovation, with separate higher education learning innovation groups funded to provide such expertise to the university. Consolidation of such groups into education faculties and expecting such faculties to provide leadership and guidance to higher education learning in addition to ITE could address the issue.- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 21, 2016 - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016Given the focus is on HE - we need to talk about academics as professional teachers with professional development needs as well...- annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016 Agree! Even when students are exposed to high levels of thinking regarding use of technologies for learning, they are then faced with frustration and disappointment when barriers such as lack of faciltites or traditional supervisors on practicum prevent them from truly immersing their practice in this direction. - annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016

Keeping Education Relevant
As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, stakeholders and administrators must seriously consider what schools can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources. It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment. There are, however, valuable skills and attitudes that can only be acquired in school settings. Soft skills, such as face-to-face communication and collaboration, for instance, are essential practices for solving problems in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Similarly, work ethic and the ability to persevere through even the toughest challenges, both social and academic, are reinforced in formal education environments. The idea is to rethink the value of education as a means of reinforcing attitudes and skills learners will need to seek credible information, work effectively in teams, and persist in achieving their goals. A recent survey by the Workforce Solutions Group found that more than 60% of employers say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills.” On the same note, the National Association of Colleges and Employers surveyed more than 200 employers about their top ten priorities in new hires and found that hiring managers desire people who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work while technical skills fell lower on the list. Generally speaking, trends in hiring make it clear that soft skills such as communication and work ethic are differentiating outstanding applicants from the pile.- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 7, 2016 for me its much more than that. young people will have multiple careers and many of the jobs they will not be prepared for by HE - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016I think this is just one dimension of the Authentic Learning challenge discussed above.

Managing Knowledge Obsolescence
Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. - geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 20, 2016 An aspect of curriculum design that is often left out is that around students knowing what is definitely known, what is partially known and what is definitely not known and they tell the difference between the three states. We need to include more learning activities that allow students to test these three states and digital tools can assist (although not solve) this problem. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016Isn't this an aspect of digital literacy? We're not far from having smart AI enabled knowledge management tools that do more than just organise and search, we should be thinking about the implications for education when content transmission and recall is trivial (at least in comparison to now), just reflecting on the access and availability of information now to 10 years ago is sobering. Managing Content and Technology Obsolescence. In the VET sector primarily because of the length of time that evidence must be kept, it is crucial that organisations consider obsolescence with the storage and retrieval of backups and put in place a digital preservation strategy to ensure that they will still be able to access these records. Also training organisations need to consider technology obsolescence when looking at purchasing or accessing systems for training to ensure longevity. - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 18, 2016 [Editor's Note: Added here from discussions in RQ2.]

Personalizing Learning
Personalized learning refers to the range of educational programs, learning experiences, instructional approaches, and academic-support strategies intended to address the specific learning needs, interests, aspirations, or cultural backgrounds of individual students. While there is a demand for personalized learning, it is not adequately supported by current technology or practices — especially at scale. The increasing focus on customizing instruction to meet students’ unique needs is driving the development of new technologies that provide more learner choice and allow for differentiated instruction. Advances such as online learning environments and adaptive learning technologies make it possible to support a learner’s individual learning path. A major barrier to personalized learning, however, is that scientific, data-driven approaches to effectively facilitate personalization have only recently begun to emerge; adaptive learning, for example, is still evolving and gaining traction within higher education. Compounding the challenge is the notion that technology alone is not the whole solution — personalized learning efforts must incorporate effective pedagogy and include faculty in the development process. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 One of the real challenges in personalized learning will be the ability to personalise at scale. Its not inconceivable that teachers need to be more akin to "data artists" and much of their work will be in the creative reinvestment of data analytics into framing experiences for each learner based on their current context and trajectory. Allowing learners to shape their own learning pathways is already occuring. Bespoke courses of study based on a students definition of their intentions will be enabled. Responding to a learners awareness of new directions and opportunities will be one of the hallmarks of a relevant education system.- mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016
- geoffrey.crisp geoffrey.crisp Feb 20, 2016 Again I think including students as partners will assist here. We often give our teaching staff the impression it is all up to them to do everything. Digital tools can assist here but we also need to include students in designing this personalised environment - brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 21, 2016From a technology perspective, focusing on building scalable, dynamic and interoperable learning systems that support personalized learning......designing learning ecosystems that have the ability to connect/interlock a variety of applications/systems and give the end user options to "build" the personal experience that is fit for purpose. The ability to understand "the whole" of an end user not only from a learning perspective but also their preferences for learning. Where are they doing their learning - from home or in the cafe? How do they access their learning - do they tend to do their assessments at lunch or prefer F2F? What type/combinations of learning media best suits? Is there a time of day that they tend to do best work? While I agree that there are limitations at the moment with scientific data there is also limitations with understanding how to design the personalized experience for the end user. To understand "the whole" is to ensure there is data from beyond just classroom. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016Personalised learning can be seen as a model for exploring the implications of a blend of formal and informal aligned to an authentic experience so many of the comments made above would apply here. I don't think anyone would argue against the value of a personalised experience - its at the heart of the PhD for example - but it comes at an immense cost and seems misaligned with the commodity approach being funded by the Government and employers. I think personalised learning will only really fire when we shift to a universal mode and can adopt approaches that are free of government needs for accountability and economic drives for efficiency - i.e. when qualifications are irrelevant.

Rethinking the Roles of Educators
Educators are increasingly expected to be adept at a variety of technology-based and other approaches for content delivery, learner support, and assessment; to collaborate with other teachers both inside and outside their schools; to routinely use digital strategies in their work with students; to act as guides and mentors in to promote student-centered learning; and to organize their own work and comply with administrative documentation and reporting requirements. Students add to these expectations through their own use of technology to socialize, organize, and informally learn on a daily basis. The integration of technology into everyday life is causing many educational thought leaders argue that institutions should be providing ways for students to continue to engage in learning activities, formal and informal, beyond the traditional school day. As this trend gathers steam, many institutions across the world are rethinking the primary responsibilities of educators. Related to these evolving expectations are changes in the ways educators engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media and online tools and resources. Notable here is the challenge that this provides for edu leaders. Scaling change and innovation is hurting lots of educators who are slow to move. Change management and leading social innovation is key. - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016 - kevinashfordrowe kevinashfordrowe Jan 24, 2016 I believe that the role of the teacher has been a continually evolving one over an extended period of time due to curriculum, pedagogy and technology advances. What is less flexible has been the traditional role of the academic educator within the HE context. In this respect, there is still often a more traditional notion of a delivery model that is implicitly transmissive (i.e. lectures). This model is often reinforced by HR policy and enterprise bargaining. Paradoxically, the educator (or academic teacher) is more often than not teaching within a much more progressive context and seeking to match the day to day reality of their role with the industrial context. - gillysalmon gillysalmon Jan 28, 2016 in futures thinking the key components of education can be deconstructed from Education 1.0 to education 3.0 ie One way of considering the development of the world wide web is seeing it as starting off as transmissive (1.0), social (2.0)…or 3.0 (semantic- meaning ‘data driven’). The big change from Web 1.0 to 2.0 was not the technology but in the way it was used.
- k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 Student-centredness in learning isn't simply about pedagogy. Increasingly, as is already evident in many creative disciplines, the educator as practitioner will need to be accommodated. The provision of time and resources for educators to be seen in action as practitioners will need to be considered. And as practitioners they will enter into a different contract with learners; not so much one of mastery as in the old apprenticeship models, but rather as one where practice informs a model of collaborative enquiry that prompts students to define new directions and challenges as the path to new learning. - mkeppell mkeppell Feb 19, 2016- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016 Some commentators are mapping the slow development of education with increased use of computing and digital opportunities to a similar continuums. Here’s my idea… much of what we has happened so far is based on Education 1.0 although we are talking about and designing for Education 2.0. If we’re serious about the future – of course we should be preparing for Education 2.5 (or 3.0, or 4.0…).
- glenn.finger glenn.finger Feb 9, 2016This discussion relates to my earlier commentary in Integrating Technology in Teacher Education on the research about a new knowledge base for teachers. The important understanding in rethinking the roles of educators is our recognition and design of why, when, where, and what learning and teaching takes place. This needs to understand that there is student-led agency, as well as conventional understanding of institution-led, system-led, school-led, and teacher-led design. An example is the impact of students as consumers in acquiring technologies which enable learning through connectivity.
- stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016I think we need to acknowledge the value of retaining many academics and helping them transition to the use of newer approaches effectively. Academics with 30 years of experience and expertise in their discipline are fundamental to the conception of a University, we can't just simply employ a young graduate because of their technical skills - they need to be genuinely an expert with years of experience. A healthy university needs staff at a mix of levels and with a diversity of experience and that means we must invest in the people we have as much as we invest in attracting new talent. Many experienced teachers are also strong users of technology that enhances learning and creates new learning opportunities. Above this, is the interplay between these attributes and the ability to truly challenge student thinking, to assist them to "unpack" conversation and research and to contextualise this for their own learning.- annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016

Scaling Teaching Innovations
Our organizations are not adept at moving teaching innovations into mainstream practice. Innovation springs from the freedom to connect ideas in new ways. Our schools and universities generally allow us to connect ideas only in prescribed ways — sometimes these lead to new insights, but more likely they lead to rote learning. Current organizational promotion structures rarely reward innovation and improvements in teaching and learning. A pervasive aversion to change limits the diffusion of new ideas, and too often discourages experimentation.- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 7, 2016 for me this remains a Very Significant Issue. A recent survey we did for the Futures Observatory at UWA suggests that worldwide everyone is struggling with this- not just Australia. And whilst the fiddlers plays...Rome burns. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 I've alluded to this in earlier comments, the ability to be responsive and agile will be a signal of the health and relevance of institutional educational. We all say we want creativity and innovation, but these things also bring the drivers of change and institutional organisational structures are not generally geared to constant adaptation - not just evolutionary adaptation, but revolutionary adaptation. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 Scalable solutions tend to be bland and lacking innovation by their required generic nature. Instead of pursuing scalability, replicability with modification should be the agenda. Hundreds of small-scale innovations (most replicated from existing solutions but with modifications for specific circumstances, students and academics) would be incubators of ongoing innovation and a better strategy than long-term investments in few innovations (well they were innovations when the process started) and then trying to get everyone to utilise them when true innovators can see they are long since being innovations (losing advocates), and most users struggle to see the advantage because the innovation is so generic as to be useful to so many, that it provides too little improvement. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016Early adopter innovation models are all very well, and quite fun if someone's buying the toys, but unless you have systems that translate their ideas into reality for more people you're just wasting money. I'm much more interested in Michael Fullan's view on this: “The answer to large-scale reform is not to try to emulate the characteristics of the minority who are getting somewhere under present conditions ... Rather, we must change existing conditions so that it is normal and possible for a majority of people to move forward” (Fullan, 2001). I'd much rather talk about enabling confidence and imagination amongst academics so that they are creative with technologies that we know scale - innovation is a meaningless phrase by itself, much like "transform" or "excellence" you need context and that context can't be isolated from the mainstream. The pragmatic reality is that most early adopter innovators are not seen as people to emulate and learn from, mostly their ideas fail and they bounce on to the next thing. That said, failure can be good and I definitely think universities should learn to value interesting failures as opportunities for learning. - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 22, 2016 Agree - Though we do need to "test" some of these technologies to analyse opportunities.

Safety of Student Data
Safety of student data has long been a concern in K-12 education, which is evident through legislation that has been passed to safeguard students and their personal data, such as the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the United States.106 As schools embrace ubiquitous technology, and more learning takes place online and in 1:1 settings, researchers see great potential to leverage these digital learning environments to mine data, which can be used to decipher trends in student behavior and create personalized software. Schools around the world are adopting cloud computing to support adaptive learning, promote cost-savings, and encourage collaboration, but sometimes the safety of student data is threatened when third-party vendors provide low-cost software as a service in return for access to student data that they then profit from. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 16, 2016 Privacy and ethical handling seem to be the two main concerns when it comes to data. Legislative limitations aside, blockchain technologies challenge all conceptualisations of trust and privacy. When every interaction with, or transaction of data can be open, transparent, immutable and traceable through a publicly accessible ledger system then we have entered a very different realm for how we expend resources on such things as trust, academic integrity, ownership, originality, etc. - j.zagami j.zagami Feb 19, 2016 The flip side to this is concern from students of the use of their data, particularly learning analytics combined with demographic data. The student that is guided into an easier course because of their ethnicity or gender may not thank the university for making this analytical decision on the best pathway for their learning, regardless of previous student performance related to their profile. Protecting student data from the university should be an issue, and few university research/survey/analytic data collection processes would meet the ethical data collection processes required by research at the same institution. - stephen.marshall stephen.marshall Feb 21, 2016 I agree, we need to pay much more attention to the ethical implications or we will lose our privileged status as societal institutions.

Teaching Complex Thinking
It is essential for learners people both to understand the networked world in which they are growing up and also — through complex thinking — to learn how to use abstraction and decomposition when tackling complex tasks and to deploy heuristic reasoning to complex problems. Mastering modes of complex thinking does not make an impact in isolation; communication skills must also be mastered for complex thinking to be applied meaningfully. Indeed, the most effective leaders are outstanding communicators with a high level of social intelligence; their capacity to connect people with other people, using technologies to collaborate and leveraging data to support their ideas, requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, data, and instinct. While some aspects of this topic could be framed as similar to or overlapping “design thinking,” for the purposes of this report, the two are considered as distinct concepts. The term “complex thinking” refers to the ability to understand complexity, a skill that is needed to comprehend how systems work in order to solve problems, and can be used interchangeably with “computational thinking.” Teaching coding in is increasingly being viewed as a way to instill this kind of thinking in students as it combines deep computer science knowledge with creativity and problem-solving. Neuroscientist Mary Immordino-Yang argues strongly that real teaching is teaching complex thinking. - cpaterso cpaterso Jan 22, 2016- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 oh yes this is so important, I've been trying (!) to design a short entirely digital module for our own university academics about futures thinking...stories to tell...key issue- is it easier or harder if entirely digital (mine is) The benefit of coding in the 21st century, there are so many online and installable technologies that makes teaching "coding" far beyond the actual code

Under-resourced Campus Infrastructure
Critical school infrastructures are under-resourced. Rather than encouraging researchers to build on and extend core resources, leverage shared file systems, and open accessible service APIs, institutions are narrowing their focus to what they perceive as the minimal subset of enterprise services they can afford to sustain. As a result, educators are often trying to design new, innovative learning models that must be integrated with outdated, pre-existing technology and learning management systems. This begs the question about the sustainability of the current higher education system in Australia. Do we have too many Higher Education providers? In my area, initial teacher education, my view would be that there are too many providers (over 40), too many courses - all trying to provide innovative blended learning models. Is it time for some serious coordination and consolidation of resources? - geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 21, 2016

New Challenges Added by Panel

Health and Safety of Technology Use
The debate about the safe use (in terms of electromagnetic radiation) of wi-fi and mobile phones/tablet is gaining momentum. I am not up with the science but I suspect that this is going to be an issue over the next few years. - geoff.romeo geoff.romeo Feb 16, 2016- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 and myths and scaremongering abounds- maybe time to get some Real Science? - gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 is security of our e mails and university systems relevant here?

Keeping Up with Technology Demands
The state of technology development and the degree of technological knowledge required to create, implement and review systems is requiring a degree of expertise that many public institutions are struggling to provide. The recent case of IT procurement in Western Australian Department of Health and other government agencies highlights the dearth of understanding. Add to this an increasingly data driven ecosystem where many end users are unaware the algorithms used to generate analytics and we face some real challenges about being sold a "pig in a poke" every time there are some new developments in technology. Supercomputer installations are growing and the facilities to house them are shrinking. Finding effective ways to respond and adapt to constant change is one of the major issues we've faced for decades. - k.flintoff k.flintoff Feb 18, 2016- gillysalmon gillysalmon Feb 20, 2016 absolutely agree Kim, for me its about the constant and obvious need to create systems architecture in our institutions that provide service partners and 24/7 working as per demand- without killing innovation. Completely agree Kim and Gillly, within the VET sector the constant change not only is technology but also curriculum and system based. This then impacts on the ability for organisations to innovate or even to keep up with new technologies - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 21, 2016. We seem to be in a unique position though - years of watching family in other industries seemingly 'adapt' to the new technology of the time and we still stick to very old tech - powerpoint and word... The constant feedback I hear is similar - we just changed to that and now you want me to move to...?! I see the point, however the change can be gradual or in certain areas - it doesn't have to be an all-in situation. In some areas, we can adopt to new tech, trial things, and in other areas adapt later - jmascorella jmascorella Feb 22, 2016 One of the significant issues facing technology adoption in the HE sector is that IT Governance (the processes and structures for decision making about digital investment) need to be fit-for-purpose in the context of: rapidly changing technology, an increasingly competitive environment and uncertain budget futures. Institutions need to be agile and innovative whilst at the same time managing risk and maintaining core services on large scale. This is a huge challenge. We can no longer deliver incremental improvements to our communities through legacy IT governance arrangements. Universities typically operate as loose federations. IT Governance is a challenge. Extracting the most of the resources available to invest in new technologies will be critical. j.stokker- j.stokker Saturday

Transferrable Digital Solutions
Something I would encourage us to think about is how we are helping our students and staff bridge their lives between all their various ecosystems: work, learning, social, personal, etc. Many higher ed institutions and other education communities design and build wonderful digital tools for students and staff to use, unfortunately these tools have no transferability outside the walls of that institution. Therefore valuable data and insights are lost not only for the individual but also for the institutions. If higher ed institutions are truly looking to support students and staff we need to understand how we can design and build tools that have personal value to the end user that will allow them to take these beyond their higher ed experience.- brenda.frisk brenda.frisk Feb 21, 2016- janine.harper janine.harper Feb 21, 2016. Totally agree - yvette.drager yvette.drager Feb 21, 2016- annieagnew annieagnew Feb 22, 2016

New Challenge Name
Add a description plus your signature, like this - Sam Sam Jan 28, 2015.

New Challenge Name
Add a description plus your signature, like this - Sam Sam Jan 28, 2015.

New Challenge Name
Add a description plus your signature, like this - Sam Sam Jan 28, 2015.
Blended is sometimes seen as a requirement to offer courses to online and off-campus students in the same course, using the same approaches and technologies. This does encourage the best use of both environments, but also introduces the worst elements of both environments. Online courses should be optimised for online students, not crippled by attempting to cater for on-campus students as well, similarly on campus courses should not have to include online activities that would be better conducted on campus.
just now
True blended learning should be seen as separate from online and on-campus offerings, with specific learning environments and pedagogies that support the integrated on and off-campus learning options of students. Such environments can use telepresence, VR, virtual worlds, and remote laboratories to enable on and off campus students to work together on learning activities, synchronously and asynchronously. This is however, different to on campus or purely online learning. The Griffith Univerity Learning Laboratory (GULL) project aims to explore true blended learning environments.